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DRUG TEST INFORMATION

Drug Test Glossary

Home / Drug Test Glossary

Common Terms in Drug Testing

Adulterated specimen:
A sample which includes a component, not suitable for the person's urine, or even if suitable, its concentration is at the level which it can't be normally detected in human's urine.

Antigen:
An agent which produces antibodies, when it finds itself in individual's organism. Antigens are bacteria, foreign blood cells, transplanted organs' cells and toxins.

Creatine:
A crystal nitrogenous agent of white color C4H9N3O2 which is concentrated mostly in vertebrates muscles either in its original state or as phosphocreatine.

Cutoff Level (Thresold):
The results of a test at or above the level are defined as positive, and the results below this level are called negative. The concentration of the resulted components is often much larger than the assay can detect.

Dilute specimen:
A sample which contains the amount of creatine and other specific components in lower concentration than normally.

Gas Chromotography:
An operation when the sample is transferred into steam, and than is added to the carrier gas (e.g. helium or nitrogen), undertaken through a sphere, which includes stationary phase, made of particulate or liquid solid and than divided into its ingredients.

Immunoassay:
A special lab technology which uses inter-swallowing between an antigen and antibody belonging to it for sake of identifying the presence of this antigen in the specimen.

Invalid drug test:
If the results obtained after passing a drug test say that there was an unidentified component in the sample, or an unidentified interfering ingredient, if the sample included unacceptable physical features or had an endogenous ingredient at an utmost level which prevented the lab from conducting results, such drug test is called invalid. There are some reasons why the results of the test are called invalid.

    For example:
  • The specimen is not applicable for testing
  • It's pH is higher or lower than normal
  • It's temperature is higher or lower than normal
  • Interference of GC/MS
  • Interference of immunoassay
  • An interfering component
  • The level of creatine is under or equal to five but the specific contents is close to normal

Mass Spectrometry:
A methodic which is used in compliance with Gas Chromatography which is due to receive exact results about the mass and contents of samples' moleculas. This method can help in finding very small drug molecules or metabolites by the spectrum of their mass-fragment.

Medical Review Officer:
A medical employee, always a physician with higher education, who takes the responsibility of receiving and possessing all the "positive" results after their checking in the laboratory. The MRO is often responsible for having contact with all people, whose results were "positive" to ask them about possible medicine which could be the reason of receiving "positive" results. The MRO must know the list of substances, abnormal for the sample and have some medical knowledge to analyze "positive" drug test results, as well as person's history and some other corresponding information.

Metabolite:
A component which is the results of chemical reactions the drug takes part in the organism.

Adulterated specimen:
A sample which includes a component, not suitable for the person's urine, or even if suitable, its concentration is at the level which it can't be normally detected in human's urine.

Affiliate:
An individual can be called affiliate if he has rights to keep the tested person in control, or if he controls the situation when one individual is the witness of other. The components to control are often private property or interlocking management, interests which are common among the family members, equipment which is used by some individuals, or the use of employees. Affiliate is also a company which has similar managing system, ownership and common employees as service agent concerning, which follows excluding people's interests.

Alcohol:
A component with intoxicating features in ethyl alcohol, beverage alcohol or other alcohols with little weight, as well as isopropyl or methyl alcohol.

Alcohol concentration:
The concentration of alcohol in breath's volume which is measured in grams of alcohol for 210 liters of breath taken during a breath test for this size.

Alcohol confirmation test:
A corresponding test with the use of EBT, and a screening test as a next step, which usually results in 0.02 or greater and shows information about the concentration of alcohol in the organism.

Alcohol screening device (ASD):
A facility for saliva or breath, not EBT, which is accepted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NTHSA) and has its place in a corresponding list of such facilities.

Alcohol screening test:
An operation with analytic feature to detect if an individual has taken unaccepted amount of alcohol and has a high concentration of it in saliva or breath sample.

Alcohol testing site:
A room which is provided by the employer to test his employees with an objective of receiving saliva or breath samples for alcohol test.

Alcohol use:
When the individual drinks or takes some liquid or substance (containing any medicine) which includes some concentration of alcohol.

Blind specimen or blind performance test specimen:
A sample taken from an employee due to test it which contains an abnormal substance and the laboratory isn't able to classify it as a component of individual's specimen.

Breath Alcohol Technician (BAT):
An individual who gives instructions and follows employees in the process of testing and contacts with evidential breath testing facility.

Cancelled test:
When a problem was detected while processing drug or alcohol test and this problem can't be solved, or there was a need to cancel the test. The results of cancelled test are neither positive nor negative.

Chain of custody:
The operation used to fix the process of registering the urine sample when it's taken from an individual to the moment when the sample is liquidated. The Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control Form (CCF) is used during this operation.

Collection container:
A holder into which the individual tested gives his sample to process a drug test.

Collection site:
A room which is provided by the employer to test his employees with an objective of receiving saliva or breath samples for alcohol test.

Collector:
An individual, who gives instructions and follows employees when they are at a collection site, inspects and reviews the sample which the employees have given and than creates and fills in the CCF.

Confirmation (or confirmatory) drug test:
A second operation of analysis processed with a urine sample to detect and classify the concentration of a special drug or drug metabolite.

Confirmation (or confirmatory) validity test:
A test processed for the second time with a urine sample to later determine if the results are valid.

Confirmed drug test:
A test result which is provided by an MRO from a laboratory with confirmed results.

Consortium/Third-party administrator (C/TPA):
A service member, who follows and assures the process of some alcohol and drug test procedures to employers. C/TPAs usually maintain managing problems concerning with employer's program of drug testing. This case contains (examples may vary) unions of employers that coordinate their forces to develop drug testing programs, including the DOT drug and alcohol testing, for their employees. C/TPAs don't function as "employers" in this case.

Continuing education:
Studies for substance abuse professionals (SAPs) and medical review officers (MROs), who have graduated from qualification training courses and are applying jobs of MRO and SAP, worked out to support innovations in the sphere of DOT drug and alcohol testing.

Designated employer representative (DER):
An employee appointed by the employer to process necessary actions to dismiss individuals from safety-sensitive positions, or cause individuals to be dismissed from these positions, and to adopt decisions in process of testing and its quantifying. The DER also takes test results and other needed requirements, which are necessary for the program of testing, for the employer. Service employees can't be DERs.

Detoxification:
A natural process provided by human's liver which is used to take the harmful components (drugs, toxins and waste products) away from the organism, to neutralize them and cleanse the body.

Dilute specimen:
A sample which contains the amount of creatine and other specific components in lower concentration than normally.

DOT, The Department, DOT agency:
These organizations include all the DOT agencies, as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), the United States Coast Guard (USCG), the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), the Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA), the Office of the Secretary (OST), and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Any DOT agency in this case is considered.

Drugs:
The drugs for which you need to pass a drug test and they are appointed by DOT agencies include: cocaine, marijuana, phencyclidine (PCP), opiates, and amphetamines.

Employee:
Any individual, who is supposed to pass a drug or alcohol test through a DOT agency. Employees are also people, who apply a job with safety-sensitive duties appointed by DOT agency's regulations as well as individuals who are seeking for a job and need to pass a pre-employment test. The word "employee" is equal to the term "donor" under the process of drug testing when it's put down into the CCF. It was also determined to use in this sphere by the Department of Health and Human Services.

Employer:
An individual or organization providing jobs for one or several employees (including people who are seeking for jobs) who maintains DOT agency regulations, needed to coincide with the deal. This word is also associated with employer's workers, representatives and staff. Service agents can't be considered as employers for this deal.

Error Correction Training:
Courses given to BATs, screening test personnel (STTs) and collectors who made a mistake which resulted in necessity to cancel an alcohol or drug test. Error correction courses should be taught face to face or during an online time of communication between an individual, who leads them and an individual, who passes them through.

Evidential Breath Testing Device (EBT):
A facility prescribed by NHTSA for evidential tests of breath with concentration of alcohol at the level .02 and .04, put into NHTSA's Conforming Products List (CPL) under "Evidential Breath Measurement Devices" and classified on the CPL as coinciding with model technologies, pointed out in NHTSA's Traffic Safety Program.

HHS:
Department of Health and Human Services or any employee of the Secretary, Department of Heath and Human Services.

Initial drug test:
This kind of testing is used to identify a negative sample from others, which have to pass additional testing for drug metabolites or drugs themselves.

Initial validity test:
A test, which is used to detect adulteration, dilution or substitution of a sample.

Invalid drug test:
If the results obtained after passing a drug test say that there was an unidentified component in the sample, or an unidentified interfering ingredient, if the sample included unacceptable physical features or had an endogenous ingredient at an utmost level which prevented the lab from conducting results, such drug test is called invalid.

Laboratory:
Any lab in America which has all the needed minimum requirements pointed out by HHS under the National Laboratory Certification Program as those applying these requirements of Subpart C of the HHS Mandatory Guidelines for Federal Workplace Drug Testing Programs; or if the laboratory is foreign, it's met all needed requirements to participate in DOT.

Medical Review Officer (MRO):
An individual, often with higher education, who takes and classifies laboratory results, according to the drug testing program of the employer. He also explains these drug results due to medical science.

Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and Compliance (ODAPC):
The department of the Secretary, DOT, which holds responsibility for managing alcohol and drug testing programs within the Office and which spreads information about alcohol and drug testing program management.

Primary specimen:
In process of drug testing, the urine sample volume is disclosed at the first laboratory to analyze if the individual, who has passed the test, recently used drugs or has drug metabolites in his organism; it's also used to validate the sample. This kind of sample is divided from original sample, described in this chapter.

Qualification Training:
Courses designed for BATs, MROs, collectors, STTs or SAPs to get some qualification in the sphere of DOT drug testing. Qualification courses can be lead by any corresponding means (e.g. in classrooms, by the internet, with the CD-ROM and with the help of video).

Refresher Training:
Courses needed periodically for BATs, collectors and STTs with qualification to refresh certain knowledge and to pass some instructions on new technologies (e.g. some new test methodic which can be applied) as well as theory, guidance, amendments and documents dealing with this part, also DOT offices' alcohol and drug testing regulations. Refresher courses can be lead by any corresponding means (e.g. in classrooms, by the internet, with the CD-ROM and with the help of video).

Screening Test Technician (STT):
An individual who gives instructions and follows employees in the process of testing and manages an ASD.

Secretary:
The secretary of Transportation or Secretary's deputy.

Service agent:
Any individual or organization, not the employer's employee, who manages services for this sphere for employers and/or employees coinciding requirements, demanded by DOT alcohol and drug testing. Service agents are (examples may vary) collectors, STTs and BATs, MROs, laboratories, substance abuse professionals, as well as C/TPAs. To have a job of a service agent an individual must have certain qualification corresponding to the knowledge in this sphere. Service agents can't be considered as employers for this deal.

Shipping container:
A volume which is used to transfer the results of drug tests packed in bottles and supplied by the documents, from the moment of their collecting to the lab.

Specimen bottle:
A volume for liquid (urine) which has certain badges and labels coinciding with operations in the sphere of drug testing, which is used to keep the urine sample during its transmitting to the laboratory.

Split specimen:
During the process of drug testing a part of the urine sample is transported to the laboratory and kept closed, it's also transferred to a second lab following employee's request to analyze it due to verify positive results, or the fact of adulteration, dilution or substitution of primary sample.

Stand-down:
A procedure of removing an employee from his job place with safety-sensitive functions for detected by the laboratory's MRO drugs or drug metabolites or the fact of test adulteration, dilution or substitution before the specialist has finished to verify test results.

Substance Abuse Professional (SAP):
An individual, who determines employees, who have infringed a DOT alcohol or drug regulation and recommends the ways of education, following testing, treatment and post-treatment care.

Substituted specimen:
A sample with creatinine and other specific characteristics which are so lessened that they can't be compared with normal human urine characteristics.

Toxic or Toxin:
A component with poisoning effect which can be dangerous for living cells in the organism. Toxins can be taken to the organism from the environment (with alcohol, drugs or pollution) or they can be the result of chemical reactions in the body connected with waste components of metabolism. Verified test A result for a drug test which was taken from HHS laboratory with a certificate and has overcome examinations and final MRO's decision.

Vitamin B3 Niacin:
Helps to support normal skin functioning, order of digestive and nervous system. Lessens the level of tryglycerides and cholesterol in blood. Makes the level or niacin higher. Makes blood channels wider. Helps to cure dizziness and ding in the ears. Disables premenstrual headaches. Cures pellagra.